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Thursday, March 18

  1. page 2002 Denali earthquake in Alaska edited ... Denali Earthquake {http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/fs014-03/images/fig1.gif} Denali Seismic Acti…
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    Denali Earthquake
    {http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/fs014-03/images/fig1.gif} Denali Seismic Activity #1Introduction-
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    human and structure.structure because it hit an area of south-central Alaska with very little population. This seismic
    Earthquake Basics-
    Earthquakes are caused by sudden slips along a fault line. Earthquakes are the equivalent of what happens when one tries to snap his or her fingers. The fingers are pressed against one another causing friction and when this friction reaches a breaking point it causes a sound that can be heard in the form of a snap.
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    {http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/webdav/site/GSL/shared/images/education_and_careers/RockCycle/Processes/Deformation/strike-slip%20fault.jpg} Real Example of Strike Slip Fault {http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ep/nvguide/images/sbg1c.gif} Strike Slip Faulting #2
    What caused this earthquake?
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    a triggered event occurring due to a mountainby an earthquake in Nenana Mountain with a magnitude of 6.7.6.7 and it happened to hit 10 days earlier than the Denali earthquake. This event
    {http://www.geology.cwu.edu/facstaff/charlier/currentprojects/denali/science_fig2.jpg} Denali Seismic Activity #2
    Earthquake parameters for Nenana Mountain Earthquake:
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    http://www.aeic.alaska.edu/Nenana_Mnt_2002/
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/fs014-03/
    6."Rupture in South-Central Alaska-The Denali Fault Earthquake of 2002 | USGS Fact Sheet 014-03." USGS Publications Warehouse. Web. 18 Mar. 2010. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/fs014-03/>.
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    5:47 am
  2. page 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami edited ... 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami Introduction ... entire century. New Guinea is known for it…
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    1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami
    Introduction
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    entire century. New Guinea is known for its seismic activity, its known as an arc-continent collision which means that plates are sliding past each other causing stress. New Guinea's tectonic boundaries are very different from all other countries.
    Earthquake
    On the evening of July 17th, 1998 at 8:49.15.33 UTC an Earthquake of a magnitude 7.1 hit the North Central Coast of Papua New Guinea, (south of Indonesia and north of Australia) about 45 Miles Southeast of Vanimo. The National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS) shows that the epicenter was about 12 miles offshore in the Pacific and the hypo-center was quite shallow only 6 km in depth, see Figure 1.0. The mechanism of earthquake is classified as steeping reverse faulting of The North Bismark Plate, which is sub-ducting below the Australian plate. The length of the actual fault fracture is approximately 30 km long. Figure 1.1 shows the actual movement along the fault and shows the hypo-center of the earthquake. Previous earthquakes in the same area show a variety in types of faulting like normal faulting and strike slip faults. For instance,the north area near the Australian Plate and The North Bismark Plate has very complicated seismic activity with other smaller plates. The Caroline plate sub trusts under the Australian Plate,which causes many strike slip movements. Studies have shown that there was an earthquake on July 4th, which had a magnitude of 5.5, 13 days prior to the magnitude 7.1. The initial earthquake would not be considered a fore-shock, because it did not occur within 24 hours of the "main-shock." The map below shows the location of the actual earthquake, refer to figure 1.0.
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    The Sissano, Papua New Guinea tsunami of July 1998 - offshore evidence on the source mechanism, DR. Tappin, Watts P,Volume 175, Number 1, 15 May 2001 , pp. 1-23(23) WEB 16 Feb 2010 <http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/00253227/2001/000001/art00131>
    Relief Web, WEB 16 Feb 2010 <http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/dbc.nsf/doc108?OpenForm&rc=5&emid=WV-1998-0220-PNG>
    "Tsunamis and Earthquakes - 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami Descriptive Model - USGS WCMG." Home Page - USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology. Web. 18 Mar. 2010. <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/PNG.html>.
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  3. page January 2009 earthquake in Costa Rica edited Introduction and Background: ... last 150 years. The years.The magnitude was United States…

    Introduction and Background:
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    last 150 years. Theyears.The magnitude was
    United States Involvement:
    The US lost a great amount of money in this disaster. The United States and Costa Rica have been involved in each other’s business for a long time. Both countries agree on: democratic government, human freedoms, free trade, and have other shared values. Costa Rica's most important trading partner is The United States. Surprisingly, most of Costa Rica's imports, exports, more than two-thirds of their foreign investment, and tourism is due to the United States. Because Costa Rica is so pure and has amazing tropical life, both countries work hard in preserving all of the wildlife. "In 2007, the United States reduced Costa Rica's debt in exchange for protection and conservation of Costa Rican forests through a debt for nature swap under the auspices of the Tropical Forest Conservation Act" (stategov.com). In about a hundred and eighty square kilometers, the US lost close to a hundred million dollars. The United States have put in so much money into preserving the environment in Costa Rica that because of all the damage, they lost a lot of what they were fighting for. Since the United States and Costa Rica have been such good "friends", the US sent a military disaster relief team to help the devastated country of Costa Rica. Thirty-four service members and four helicopters were sent to Costa Rica. " During operations from Jan. 10–12 in the vicinity of San Miguel, the U.S. helicopter crews flew 39 missions, evacuating 90 people, including two wounded victims, and transporting 154 rescue workers to and from disaster sites" (southcom.mil). The United States spent almost three-hundred and fifty thousand dollars on relief aid for the damage of this 6.1 earthquake.
    Shelters and Help:
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    reconstruct their homes. Therehomes.There were many
    What Caused the Most Damage and Fatalities:
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    January earthquake causecaused many mmassmass movements, specifically
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    to affected communities. "Approximately,communities."Approximately, 225 houses
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    928 people" (wikispaces)
    and
    (wikispaces)and 20 water
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    also affected.
    According
    According to the
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    from the landslides. Therelandslides.There were over
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    Ministy of Agriculture. TheAgriculture.The Volcanic National
    {_costa_rica_earthquake_mxgb102.jpg} {d9a01a30eb1d368a.jpg} {b03da4105faa0038.jpg} {79039efa71170402.jpg} {1de2a40469d0569c.jpg} {cr_landslide.jpg}
    Sources:
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  4. page Mount Redoubt, Alaska edited ... {r26_1237921283.jpg} Figure 3: Shows muddy waterfalls flowing down the side of the volcano as …
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    {r26_1237921283.jpg} Figure 3: Shows muddy waterfalls flowing down the side of the volcano as a result to the melting snow and ice atop Redoubt.
    Recent Eruption's Impact on the Population:
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    also canceled. This was because the ash can harm the engines of the planes . Five of
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    air traffic. Still, people with respiratory problems were asked to not go outside of their homes or if they had to do so to wear a face back, until the ash calmed down. The Alaska
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    falling ash. In rural areas, people also suffered from cancelations of air transportation. At Talkeetna Air Taxi, flights were canceled and air planes were covered to protect them from the falling ash.
    After the series of the Mount Redoubt eruptions started on Marh 22, the Drift River Terminal was closed and evacuated. Coast Guard officials came up with an agreement to move about 6.3 gallons of crude oil from the Drift River Terminal, which is at the foot of Mount Redoubt, for fear of experiencing an oil spill. This might have also been due to the threat of dome collapse, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and floods. However, after the oil is removed there will still be a large quantity of it left on the tanks. After the eruption of Redoubt in 1989-90, the terminal was improved by adding dikes to it to keep it safe from the damage of floods and lahars going down the Drift River valley from Redoubt, which have proved to be a success because they have been resistant during the present floods. Notwithstanding this, the main reason for the removal of the oil is the people’s concern in having an oil terminal near an active mount.
    Luckily this
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    a light ash fall on
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    larger populations. In other places the aftermath of the eruptions was more obvious. In the town of Skwentna, trees and snow were turned black by the ash.
    Sources:
    Figure 1: http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/04/alaskas_mount_redoubt.html
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    http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,510100,00.html
    http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7960825.stmhttp://volcanoes.suite101.com/article.cfm/eruption_of_mount_redoubt_alaska_2009
    Klemetti, Erik. “Oil from the Drift River Terminal near Redoubt to be moved.” 3 April 2009. 17 March 2010 http://scienceblogs.com/eruptions/2009/04/oil_from_the_drift_river_termi.php.
    Mauer, Richard. “Volcano Status Lowered; Oil to be Moved.” Anchorage Daily News. 4 April 2009. 17 March 2010 <http://www.adn.com/2009/04/02/746236/volcano-status-lowered-oil-to.html>.
    Riccardi, Nicholas and Stuart Glascock. “Alaska's Mt. Redoubt Erupts Five Times Overnight.” Los Angeles Times on the Web 24 March 2009. 17 March 2010 <http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/24/nation/na-alaska-volcano24?pg=2>.
    “Volcano in Alaska Blows Top Again.” BBC News. 24 March 2009. 17 March 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7960825.stm.

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    2:56 am
  5. page social change edited ... Social Change in an Emerging Country in the Aftermath of a Disaster At 3:04 a.m. on February…
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    Social Change in an Emerging Country in the Aftermath of a Disaster
    At 3:04 a.m. on February 4, 1976, Guatemala was truck by devastating earthquake. It destroyed most adobe type structures in Guatemala City and adjacent provinces and townships. The death toll was estimated to be more than 23,000 and injured more than 70,000. Additionally, the estimated homeless were over one million; this was about 1/6 of the country’s population[1]. In many cities and towns the food, water, electricity, and communication were significantly affected and diminished. Transportation was very difficult and some road reconstruction took years to be restored. The USGS reported that the fault that was the main cause of the Magnitude 7.5 earthquake was the Managua fault. This fault runs about 15 miles from the north of Guatemala City eastward and the breakage was more than 100 miles along the stretch of the fault (Picture 1). The tectonic boundary of the Motagua fault is a left lateral strike-slip between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate with the Cocos plate pushing against the Caribbean plate as well. This forms a subduction zone that is known as the Middle America Trench.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/GuateQuake1976HotelTerminalA.jpg}
    This is a photograph of the direct devastation from the 7.5M earthquake that struck Guatemala.

    Like in any other disaster of this scale, the attention, relief, and reconstruction efforts of the Guatemalan earthquake demanded, and naturally received, global notice. Also, like in any other disaster, particularly one that hits an emerging country; interests can go beyond the immediate restoration and efforts to return things to normal. Inevitably, this can attract entities and other organizations with perhaps a hidden agenda to come to the aid with a broader vision than the victims may have anticipated and thus create, perhaps unconsciously, significant social changes that reshape the history of the country. In the case of Guatemala, the changes did not come through political activism alone, as this was already in motion prior to the earthquake. Political activism had been prominent in Guatemala since they declared their independence from Spain in 1821 and continued through the 1950’s which marked the commencement of a 36-year long revolutionary war.
    The Guatemalan population was already in a civil war when the earthquake hit in 1976. Radicals had been active in revolutionary efforts since 1954 when the then President Arbenz had launched a campaign against foreign companies that were profiting from the country's natural resources. Among these companies was the United Fruit Company which by the 1950s, owned a considerable amount of land in the rural areas of Guatemala. President Arbenz, in efforts to gain back much of the land that had been taken away from the indigenous peoples and sold to the American company by preceding administrations only to benefit themselves, made numerous policies changes and tax increases that he hoped would restore the land to the Guatemala natives. Some Guatemalans believe that, in an effort to maintain their financial interest, the American government accused President Arbenz of being communist and began to infiltrate in Guatemala politics as they started a campaign to remove him from office. The CIA was given the task by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower to remove the president from power by, among other means, an organized small force of Guatemalan refugees and mercenaries to take over[2]. But when the Guatemalan president realized that he was taking on a force much larger than he intended, he resigned from office. No one could have predicted that this single event would have launched a civil war that lasted more than 36 years.
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    12:04 am

Wednesday, March 17

  1. page H1N1 pandemic edited ... CDC: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/12/health/main5625415.shtml Wikipedia: http://en…
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    CDC: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/12/health/main5625415.shtml
    Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_flu_pandemic#Effectiveness_of_antivirals_questioned
    CDC: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif&imgrefurl =http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/surveillanceqa.htm&usg=QGC3ctaInj7EvSZwLdHA59JTcjY=&h=354&w=579&sz=33&hl=en&start=20&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=lYks4AzS2IhsMM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dh1n1%2Bchart%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26tbs%3Disch:1http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/surveillanceqa.htm&usg=QGC3ctaInj7EvSZwLdHA59JTcjY=&h=354&w=579&sz=33&hl=en&start=20&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=lYks4AzS2IhsMM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dh1n1%2Bchart%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26tbs%3Disch:1
    PBS:__ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/health/july-dec09/flu-costs_10-08.html
    EDIT: WHO: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/h1n1/info/info_regionsNpop.htm
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  2. page H1N1 pandemic edited ... CDC: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/12/health/main5625415.shtml Wikipedia: http://en…
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    CDC: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/12/health/main5625415.shtml
    Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_flu_pandemic#Effectiveness_of_antivirals_questioned
    CDC: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/surveillanceqa.htm&usg=QGC3ctaInj7EvSZwLdHA59JTcjY=&h=354&w=579&sz=33&hl=en&start=20&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=lYks4AzS2IhsMM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dh1n1%2Bchart%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26tbs%3Disch:1http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif&imgrefurl =http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/surveillanceqa.htm&usg=QGC3ctaInj7EvSZwLdHA59JTcjY=&h=354&w=579&sz=33&hl=en&start=20&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=lYks4AzS2IhsMM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dh1n1%2Bchart%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26tbs%3Disch:1
    PBS:__ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/health/july-dec09/flu-costs_10-08.html
    EDIT: WHO: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/h1n1/info/info_regionsNpop.htm
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  3. page H1N1 pandemic edited ... Chart 1 {http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif} In addition to the previo…
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    Chart 1
    {http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1FLU/images/graphs/qa_graphA.gif}
    In addition to the previously stated information and ways provided to improve pandemics, one final way, that is a far different viewpoint, is to simply not overreact regarding pandemics. The H1N1 Influenza was not the first pandemic and will most certainly not be the last, but we, as a nation and world, reacted so drastically and over-dramatically. The facts show that the H1N1 flu was not significantly worse than the typical seasonal flu. According to CDC, approximately 36,000 people in America die annually from seasonal flu-related causes. H1N1 is a serious illness and should be handled as such, but likewise, should not have the entire world living in fear. Christopher Albon, a PhD candidate at UC Davis says, "Governments must tackle epidemics as they would other natural disasters: assisting citizens while minimizing the disruption to economic, social, and security activity. If we do not change how the public perceives and understands epidemic-disasters, our overreaction could be worse than the diseases themselves."
    Sources used:
    WHO: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/frequently_asked_questions/levels_pandemic_alert/en/index.html
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    PBS:__ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/health/july-dec09/flu-costs_10-08.html
    EDIT: WHO: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/h1n1/info/info_regionsNpop.htm
    Edit: CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/Flu/keyfacts.htm
    Edit: Conflict Health: http://conflicthealth.com/h1n1-dont-fear-the-disease-fear-the-overreaction/

    7. Garret, Laurie (2009). The Path of a Pandemic. Newsweek. Retrieve March 12, 2010, from htto: www.newsweek .com/id/195692
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